Linear polarization effects on laser drilling were investigated by the use of a picosecond laser system. It was observed that the exit shapes of stainless steel were placed perpendicular to the direction of polarization. According to theoretical analysis, the main factor that determines the exit hole shape is the difference between R
s and R
p. When this gap is large enough, the bulges on the exit hole will be easily observed. Inversely, when the gap is small, bulges can be barely spotted on the exit hole. This is further confirmed by comparative experiment and calculation conducted on a copper sheet.
We grew high-quality Yb:LuVO4, Yb:GdVO4, and Yb:YVO4 by the floating zone (FZ) method. It was found by measurement that these crystals had favorable optical properties. A maximum absorption coefficient of 27 cm−1 (FWHM) and a fluorescence bandwidth with a 20 nm (FWHM) were observed for Yb:LuVO4 at a Yb doping level of 4 at. %. Finally, we demonstrated the lasing performances of Yb:LuVO4, Yb:GdVO4, and Yb:YVO4. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Yb-doped vanadate grown by the FZ method has been used as a laser, and 4 at.% Yb doping of the Yb:LuVO4 and Yb:YVO4 is the highest level of doping at which laser oscillation occurs among the Yb-doped vanadates.
The induced optical aberration of laser beam passing through a transparent flowing fluid layer on a metal specimen is experimentally and empirical formula studied. The proposed study presents an experimental investigation of metal surface roughness measurement by combining an optical probe of laser-scattering phenomena and adaptive optics (AO) for aberration correction. In the absence of the AO correction scheme, induced flow velocity of 0.278 m/s can severely degrade the residual wavefront root mean square (RMS) error to 0.58 μm and decrease the scattered laser intensity. Real-time AO correction in closed-loop at a sampling rate of 8Hz can reduce the wavefront RMS error to 0.19 μm and improve the attenuation of scattered laser intensity. The maximum relative error of the estimated roughness (R
a) is less than 7.8% compared with the stylus method. The experimental results show satisfactory correction in the presence of a flowing fluid layer using the AO system.
A 50.2W high pulse energy green laser system at 532 nm was demonstrated by extra-cavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). The fundamental laser was based on laser diode (LD) side-pumped MOPA Q-switched technology, producing 79W of average power at the repetition rate of 500 Hz, while the pulse width was 6 ns. Type-II angle phasematched KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal was used as the nonlinear crystal. The 50.2W average power of 532 nm laser was obtained with the divergence angle less than 0.6 mrad and the corresponding peak power of 16.7MW. The optical frequency conversion efficiency from fundamental to green laser was up to 63.5%. The measured output power fluctuation was less than 0.38% in one hour operation.
An amplifier is characterized by its transfer function T, which expresses the dependence of the output signal on the input signal. This signal may be related to power, intensity, energy of a pulse, or its fluence, or any similar physical quantity. The internal structure of the amplified signal (e.g., its spectral content, polarization, temporal behavior, and spatial distribution) is not taken into account. The amplifier is considered to be spatially homogeneous and uniformly pumped. The transfer function is supposed to be known (measured in an experiment). The problem of reconstruction of the behavior of the signal inside the amplifier is formulated.
Broad-area semiconductor lasers are unstable light sources even in solitary oscillation owing to the spatial dependence of laser emission along the stripe width. One of the instabilities that occur in the dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers is filamentation. Laser oscillations are further affected by optical feedback. In the presence of optical feedback, higher spatial modes related to the filamentations are either excited or suppressed depending on the feedback conditions. As a result, the beam shape of the time-averaged pattern is greatly affected by optical feedback. In this study, we perform the decomposition of spatial-mode components for time-averaged near-field patterns in the presence of optical feedback. A method of simulated annealing (SA) is employed for the decomposition. The beam profiles are well reconstructed by the SA method. A quantitative discussion of the excitation or suppression of higher spatial modes in relation to the optical feedback conditions is given.
Resonator modes in two-dimensional laser cavities with curved end mirrors filled with a left-handed material were investigated numerically using the extended Fox-Li mode calculation method. The results reveal that the phase profile on the curved end mirrors of a left-handed cavity is inverted relative to that of a cavity filled with a right-handed material. Furthermore, we show that the phase on the end mirrors takes discrete values of zero and ±π under stable resonator conditions, while it varies continuously under unstable resonator conditions. The differences between stable and unstable resonators significantly alter the far-field patterns of the lowest-loss modes.
We numerically investigate the effects of parameter mismatches on chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surfaceemitting lasers (VCSELs). We assume injection-locked chaos synchronization in a unidirectionally coupled and openloop optical feedback system. The accuracy of chaos synchronization is greatly affected by the mismatches of the device parameters and operation conditions between the two lasers. In particular, the oscillation frequency of the laser is one of the important parameters in a system of injection-locked chaos synchronization. However, the variations of the device characteristics of VCSELs are very large compared with those of other types of semiconductor lasers. We study the effects of parameter mismatches related to the oscillation frequency of VCSELs on chaos synchronization. We proved that mismatches in terms of the birefringence and the injection current play crucial roles for the quality of chaos synchronization.
This study proposes a beam shaper for converting a circle beam profile generated with a Gaussian intensity distribution by an 808 nm diode laser into a line beam profile for silicon surface treatment applications. To produce a hand-held and low-cost device with a large spot-size laser, this study uses a portable optical system consisting of a diode laser source, a collimator, a cylindrical lens, and a plano-convex lens to generate an approximately 40 × 3:5mm2 line beam profile at a working distance of 200 mm. The silicon surface treated by the line-shaped laser beam has significantly reduced reflectance spectra. The proposed system is also suitable for the surface cleaning of materials.
The application of blue laser lithography for creating antireflective submicron structures on a crystalline silicon substrate was evaluated. The assembled blue laser lithography system was obtained by modifying a commercial blue laser optical pickup head and consisting of a 405-nm-wavelength blue laser and a 0.85-numerical-aperture objective lens. Si substrates were patterned with submicron column patterns of various periods and aspect ratios by blue laser lithography using a sputtered Ge-Sb-Sn-O layer as a resist. The reflectance of the patterned Si substrate decreased to 3% on average in the 300–1000 nm wavelength range, with a low sensitivity to the angle of incident light. Such patterned substrates showed potential for application in crystalline Si solar cells.